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                  比賽場館


                  National Speed Skating Oval

                  國家速滑館

                  The National Speed Skating Oval will host the speed skating competitions during the Beijing 2022 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games. People would love to address it as "The Ice Ribbon", the shape of which resembles the skating trails of fast-speed skaters. The skating hall of the Oval has an ice surface of about 12,000 square meters, making it the largest speed skating stadium in Asia. The Oval is the world's first Winter Olympic venue using carbon dioxide transcritical direct cooling ice-making technology. The temperature difference on the ice surface does not exceed 0.5 degrees centigrade, which is beneficial for athletes to log good results.

                  國家速滑館是2022年北京冬奧會和冬殘奧會期間速滑項目的比賽場地。因其建筑外形就像速滑運動員高速滑行時留下的軌跡,人們也稱其為“冰絲帶”。作為亞洲最大的速滑場地,場地冰面面積達1.2萬平方米。國家速滑館是世界上第一個采用二氧化碳跨臨界直接冷卻制冰技術的冬奧會場館,冰面溫差不超過0.5攝氏度,更有利于運動員取得好成績。


                  Wukesong gymnasium

                  五棵松體育館

                  Wukesong gymnasium was designed and built for the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. It has an instantly recognisable exterior, which can be lit up in an array of different colours at night. In 2015, work began on the arena to install an ice rink – which can be converted back into a basketball court in under six hours. In 2016, the gymnasium was an arena for both basketball and ice hockey events. After a modification of its ice making and dehumidification systems, it can switch between ice hockey and basketball setups.

                  五棵松體育館是為2008年北京奧運會設計和建造的,其建筑外觀極易識別,夜間呈現不同色彩。2015年,五棵松體育館鋪設了冰場。2016年起,該館同時成為職業籃球和職業冰球兩項賽事的主場。經過對場館制冰和除濕系統的改造,場館實現了六小時內完成冰球、籃球比賽模式的轉換。


                  Chinese National Alpine Skiing Centre

                  國家高山滑雪中心

                  The Chinese National Alpine Skiing Centre is situated in the Xiaohaituo Mountain Area in northwest Yanqing. The starting point of the skiing centre has a maximum steepness of 68 degrees—one of the steepest race tracks in the world. With a kite-like shape, this structure tops off at the highest altitude in Beijing. The skiing centre has seven ski slopes with a total length of about 9.2 kilometres and its largest vertical drop reaches 893 meters.

                  國家高山滑雪中心位于延慶西北小海陀山區,其滑降賽道最大坡度達68度,是世界上最難最險的賽道之一。它形似一只風箏,是北京海拔最高的建筑;┲行挠7個賽道,全長約9.2公里,垂直落差達893米。


                  National Indoor Stadium

                  國家體育館

                  In 2022, the National Indoor Stadium will be the venue for the para ice hockey during the Paralympics. In its upgrade and reconstruction project, a new ice hockey training hall has been built on the north side of the main hall. The facade of the training hall is decorated with 863 pieces of ice flower pattern embossed glass, so the National Indoor Stadium is nicknamed as Ice Castle.

                  國家體育館是2022年北京冬殘奧會的冰球比賽場地。通過升級改造,在主比賽廳的北側新建了一個訓練館。新建訓練館的外面由863塊冰花圖案的壓花玻璃裝飾,因此國家體育館被稱為“冰堡”。


                  National Ski Jumping Center

                  國家跳臺滑雪中心

                  The National Ski Jumping Center is built halfway up the mountains in the Guyangshu area, Zhangjiakou. Featuring two slopes and located around 1,750 meters above sea level, the center's S-type curve resembles the shape of a jade Ruyi scepter, a traditional Chinese ceremonial object-earning it the nickname "Snow Ruyi".

                  國家跳臺滑雪中心位于張家口群山環繞的古楊樹場館群。中心設有兩條賽道,賽道起點的海拔高度約1750米。場館 S型的曲線宛若中國傳統吉祥飾物“如意”,因此又被稱為“雪如意”。



                  冬奧會部分比賽項目


                  Figure skating      

                  花樣滑冰

                  Singles events are performed by one person, whereas a pair event is always a man and a woman, who together perform difficult and amazing tricks such as spins and jumps as they skate across the smooth surface of the ice. Ice dancing is similar to pairs figure skating. It is always done by a team comprised of a man and a woman. They must do four dances, and two of these dances are the same for all dancers. The other two dances are called the "original dance" and "free dance" respectively. The skaters are ranked by judges according to their technical score and presentation score.

                  男女單人滑比賽中,比賽按短節目和自由滑的順序分兩天進行。雙人滑由一名男運動員和一名女運動員配對參賽,分短節目和自由滑兩個項目,兩個項目總分構成最終成績。冰上舞蹈由一男一女配對比賽,比賽按短舞蹈和自由舞的順序進行。雙人滑和冰上舞蹈的主要區別在于技術動作。


                  Short track speed skating

                  短道速滑

                  The short track events occur on a 111-meter oval track. The skaters race in a pack of 4-8 at a time, and the first person crossing the finish line is the winner.

                  短道速滑項目通常在室內冰場舉行,比賽所用跑道周長約111米。短道速滑比賽采用淘汰制,4到8運動員在同一條起跑線上起跑出發,以到達終點先后順序論勝負。


                  Bobsleigh      

                  雪車

                  Bobsleigh is a winter sport invented by the Swiss in the 19th century. In 1924, a four-man race took place at the first ever Olympic Winter Games in Chamonix. A two-man event was added at the 1932 Lake Placid Games in a format that has remained to the present. The first women's bobsleigh event - the two-woman bobsled - was held in 2002 at the Salt Lake Winter Games in the United States.

                  19世紀末期,雪車運動在瑞士出現。1924年,在法國夏蒙尼第一屆冬奧會上,男子四人雪車被列入正式比賽項目。1932年美國普萊西德湖第三屆冬奧會增設男子雙人雪車,2002年美國鹽湖城第19屆冬奧會首次設置女子雙人比賽。


                  Skeleton      

                  鋼架雪車

                  Skeleton is considered the world's first sliding sport. Skeleton appeared at the 1928 and 1948 St. Moritz Winter Games. These were indeed its only two appearances before it was permanently added to the Olympic program in 2002 at the Salt Lake Winter Games. Since then, there have been two events: one men's and one women's.

                  鋼架雪車被認為是世界上第一項滑行運動。1928年和1948年的圣莫里茨冬奧會,是鋼架雪車項目在奧運會的兩次亮相,也是該項目回歸2002年鹽湖城冬奧會之前僅有的兩次亮相。從2002年冬奧會開始鋼架雪車男子和女子項目正式列入冬奧會比賽項目。


                  Nordic Combined     

                  北歐兩項

                  Nordic combined is a winter sport in which athletes compete incross-country skiing and ski jumping. Until the 1950s, the cross-country race was held first, followed by the ski jumping. This was reversed as the score advantage in the cross-country race tended to be too big to overcome in ski jumping.

                  北歐兩項是一個包含了越野滑雪和跳臺滑雪的冬季體育項目。20世紀50年代前,運動員先進行的是越野滑雪的比賽,之后再參加跳臺滑雪,后來對比賽順序進行了調整,因為運動員在越野滑雪所獲得的得分優勢,很難在跳臺滑雪當中被趕超。


                  Cross-country skiing    

                  越野滑雪

                  Cross-country skiing is a form of skiing where skiers rely on their own locomotion to move across snow-covered terrain, rather than using ski lifts or other forms of assistance. Cross-country skiing is widely practiced as a sport and recreational activity; however, some still use it as a means of transportation.

                  越野滑雪是一項靠滑雪運動員自身力量在雪地前行的一項滑雪運動。運動員需要穿越大雪覆蓋的田野,同時在前行的時候,不需要上山吊椅或其他的輔助設備來進行運動。越野滑雪既是一項大眾非常喜歡的體育運動,同時也是一個幫助大家放松休閑的活動,也有人把越野滑雪當作自己的交通方式。


                  Alpine skiing    

                  高山滑雪

                  Alpine skiing is one of the signature competitions at the Winter Olympics. Competitors regularly reach speeds of up to 152 km/h, all while navigating a winding course full of sharp turns and soaring jumps. There are 11 events in the Alpine competition at the 2022 Games, with 33 medals up for grabs. Alpine skiing is one of the most physically demanding sports in the Winter Olympic Games, which is arguably reflected in the fact that in the entire history of Alpine skiing at the Winter Games, only five athletes have successfully defended their Olympic crowns across all events in the competition.

                  高山滑雪是冬奧會的標志性比賽項目之一。2022年北京冬奧會的高山滑雪比賽分為11個小項,將產生33枚獎牌。比賽時,選手們在彎曲的賽道上快速回轉、滑降,速度能達到152公里/小時。高山滑雪是冬奧會中對體力要求最高的運動項目之一,歷屆冬奧會的高山滑雪比賽中,只有5名運動員成功衛冕。


                  Ski jumping    

                  跳臺滑雪

                  Ski jumping has been a part of the Winter Olympic programme since the first Games in Chamonix in 1924, when the men's large hill was the sole event. A normal hill competition was added for the 1964 Innsbruck Games, with the men's team large hill joining the programme in 1988. The women's competition was only added for the 2014 Sochi Games, while the mixed team event is new for 2022.

                  自1924年夏蒙尼冬奧會起,跳臺滑雪成為了冬奧會的比賽項目,當時唯一的比賽項目是男子大跳臺。在1964年因斯布魯克冬奧會中,個人標準臺項目被列入比賽項目。1988年,男子大跳臺團體項目成為冬奧會比賽項目。在2014年索契冬奧會上,女子跳臺滑雪項目被列為比賽項目。2022年北京冬奧會新增混合團體項目作為比賽項目。



                  冬殘奧會部分比賽項目


                  Wheelchair Curling   

                  輪椅冰壺

                  Wheelchair curling is an adaptation of curling for athletes with a disability affecting their lower limbs or gait. It is played with the same rocks and on the same ice as regular curling, though the rocks are thrown from a stationary wheelchair and there is no sweeping. Rocks may be thrown by hand while leaning over the side of the wheelchair, or pushed by a delivery stick.

                  輪椅冰壺是為下肢有殘疾或者走路不便的運動員設計的比賽。輪椅冰壺運動員必須坐在輪椅上進行比賽,比賽采用和健全人同樣的規則,差別僅在于輪椅冰壺比賽沒有刷冰,且投壺者必需在固定的輪椅上擲壺。除了可以用手擲壺外,還可以用投擲桿擲壺。


                  Para cross-country skiing

                  殘奧滑雪

                  Para cross-country skiing first appeared at the 1976 Winter Paralympic Games in Sweden. The competition is open to athletes with a physical impairment and vision impairment. As a recreational activity, it is widely practiced among winter sport lovers; however, some still use it as a means of transportation.

                  殘奧滑雪首次出現在1976年的冬季瑞典殘奧會上。身體和視覺方面有殘疾的運動員可以參加這項比賽。作為一項休閑活動,殘奧越野滑雪受到了很多冬季運動愛好者的歡迎,另外有一些人則把這項運動作為了自己的一種交通方式。


                  Para Snowboard   

                  殘奧單板滑雪

                  The para snowboard competition includes male and female athletes with a physical impairment such as spinal injury, cerebral palsy and amputation. After many years of campaigning, in 2012 it was announced that snowboard would make its debut at the Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games as part of the alpine skiing program.

                  殘奧單板滑雪比賽分男女項目,參賽選手均為殘疾運動員。經過多年推廣,殘奧單板滑雪比賽首次作為高山滑雪項目的子項目出現在2014年的索契冬奧會上。


                  Para ice hockey   

                  殘奧冰球

                  Since its debut at Lillehammer 1994 Winter Games, the Paralympic version of ice hockey has quickly become one of the largest attractions for spectators. It is fast-paced, highly physical and played by male and female athletes with a physical impairment in the lower part of the body.

                  1994年的利勒哈默爾冬奧會上,殘奧冰球被正式列為比賽項目,并很快成為了最受觀眾歡迎的項目之一。殘奧冰球比賽節奏快、對抗性強,參加這項運動的都是下肢殘疾的運動員。





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